,


10 thoughts on “Du Contrat Social Ou Principes Du Droit Politique

  1. Ahmad Sharabiani Ahmad Sharabiani says:

    Du Contrat Social Principes du droit Politique The Social Contract Principles of Political Rights, Jean Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract or, Principles of Political Rights by Jean Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality 1754 The Social Contract help Du Contrat Social Principes du droit Politique The Social Contract Principles of Political Rights, Jean Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract or, Principles of Political Rights by Jean Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality 1754 The Social Contract helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe, especially in France The Social Contract argued against the idea that monarchs were divinely empowered to legislate Rousseau asserts that only the people, who are sovereign, have that all powerful right 1974 1348 1345 1329 1347


  2. Lisa (Harmonybites) Lisa (Harmonybites) says:

    The one star rating does not mean I don t recommend reading The Social Contract Everyone should It s that important, that influential and reading this was certainly eye opening One star does not mean this was tedious, dry or difficult In fact this treatise is not long, is easy to understand and can be read in a few hours And Rousseau can certainly turn a phrase Lots and lots that s quotable in this book But I don t simply not like the book which on Goodreads means one star I absolutely The one star rating does not mean I don t recommend reading The Social Contract Everyone should It s that important, that influential and reading this was certainly eye opening One star does not mean this was tedious, dry or difficult In fact this treatise is not long, is easy to understand and can be read in a few hours And Rousseau can certainly turn a phrase Lots and lots that s quotable in this book But I don t simply not like the book which on Goodreads means one star I absolutely despise this book and everything it stands for Leo Strauss called Machiavelli the teacher of evil and goodness knows I have nothing kind to say about Marx But both feel clean and wholesome in comparison to Rousseau Machiavelli at least is open about urging there is no place for morals in politics, but Rousseau is positively Orwellian He begins the first chapter of Social Contract with the stirring worlds Man is born free and everywhere is in chains. But though he speaks of liberty and democracy it s clear that his ideal state as he defines it is totalitarian Those who don t want any part of his state, who won t obey, should be forced to be free Locke argued inalienable rights included life, liberty, and property governments are instituted to secure those rights For Rousseau, life, liberty and property are all things you give wholly to the state retaining no individual rights Rousseau states Whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body the social contract gives the body politic absolute power over all its members when the prince says to him It is expedient for the State that you should die, he ought to die.Even Rousseau thought his ideal system couldn t work in large territories He ideally wanted direct democracy, with all citizens meeting in assembly such as in the ancient city state of Athens, not representative democracy, which he doesn t see as true democracy And the larger the state, theabsolute in its powers andautocratic the government should be lest it fall into selfish anarchy Alissa Ardito says in the Introduction to my edition that Politics is also about language, talking, negotiating, arguing and for that Rousseau had no need and little patience The goal in The Social Contract is always about consensus, and in the end one suspects what Rousseau finally wanted was silence You cannot have liberty or democracy while shutting up and shutting down anyone who dissents from the general will And then there s Rousseau s urging of a civil religion, where one literally worships the state What you get then is the obscenity of a state as the Democratic People s Republic of Korea, whose only nod to democracy is in the name, and where its leader takes on a quasi religious status Can I see any good in this treatise I can see the form the United States took in the discussion of a mix between monarchy President , aristocracy Senate, Supreme Court and democracy Congress and checks and balances between them But such features are also discussed in Locke s Second Treatise of Government and in Montesquieu s The Spirit of the Laws, both of which predate The Social Contract In fact, Rousseau s categories of government can even trace its roots to Aristotle So, what good I can see in it is hardly original Well, and The Social Contract did argue for sovereignty being lodged in the people rather than a Divine Right of Kings it s supposed to have inspired the French Revolution, and its cry of liberty, equality, fraternity If so, it s easier to understand why the French Revolution turned into the Reign of Terror I do consider this a must read, and I m glad I read it It s enlightening, like turning over a rock to see all the nasty things that were hiding underneath


  3. Fergus Fergus says:

    My friend Ahmad is right this is an important and not dry book that we all Need to Revisit Remember when Freedom was a glorious ideal a fresh, untrammelled new territory to explore at will Look back Think of Thomas Paine in America, Edmund Burke in England, Rousseau s bright confr res among the philosophes all of them trumpeted the Dawn of a Fresh New Day.Of course all of our own early days were filled with its fresh air And then, back then the early days of the Enlightenment, th My friend Ahmad is right this is an important and not dry book that we all Need to Revisit Remember when Freedom was a glorious ideal a fresh, untrammelled new territory to explore at will Look back Think of Thomas Paine in America, Edmund Burke in England, Rousseau s bright confr res among the philosophes all of them trumpeted the Dawn of a Fresh New Day.Of course all of our own early days were filled with its fresh air And then, back then the early days of the Enlightenment, that powerhouse of political ideology that conceived the Golden Image of TRUE democracy The world was coming of age What happened to us all to spoil all that Well, the world grew older and so did we Jean Jacques Rousseau, though, all appearances to the contrary, was at heart a Golden Ager Whatever we may think, his philosophy was not Utopian Rousseau just wanted to return to the Age of Innocence, like Auden though perhaps a little bitna vely than Wystan, and to universal brotherhood Which serves him well here.Oh, those lost ideals Yes, he was every bit as na ve as we were in our early years. and I was a lot probablyso than a lot of you, too Still, he never stopped HOPING, in spite of all the bullies and naysayers But like Jean Jacques, I know my teenaged springtime was anything but sound The serpent had long since reached the centre of the apple Rousseau like me attempted extensive damage control, and the galloping extr mes of his writing belie that constantly thwarted rationalization He was perhaps successful, at least outwardly, though inwardly most of his life was lived on tenterhooks.But now maybe you, like so many of US old Boomers, remain a partial stranger in this brave new world we see around us And we can never go back to the Golden Age, it seems Why Because we all have seen the enemy and he is us Because he is ALWAYS there with us, even in disguise in these faraway times.You know, we moderns grew up faster because we were in sync with Accelerated Modern Time, and because the serpent is in plain view these days.Caught in that music, all neglectMonuments of undying intellect.So, to so many of us, Jean Jacques fades back into the chipped and forgotten statuary of the Enlightenment But MAYBE HIS Hope is still a valid GROWNUP option And as for the actual Rousseau What he was, he was.What he is fated to becomeDepends on us.Don t you see Just because we ve all been hurt and have fallen from grace is no excuse for our omnipresent modern cynicism.And as Auden s poetic words can also apply to the way we see this tarnished 18th century idol, perhaps Rousseau s historical fate, along with Democracy s and the World s, also depends on US.Our attitudes Our emotions We re sad sacks when we should be can do er s And if we re as idealistic as he was, these things will depend on having a grown up sense of HOPE It s time we revisited that Golden Ideal There IS still room for goodness, decency and hope in this fallen world if we keep one ear open to the postmodernist mindset.And The Social Contract has all of those virtues in Spades


  4. Warwick Warwick says:

    It is always an evil, opines Rousseau near the end of this treatise, to unite several towns in one nation, and you think hang on that s all nations, isn t it Except, perhaps aha for the Swiss republics like Rousseau s own native Geneva, where state and city were coterminous and political theories could be tested and discarded like strains of bacteria in a petri dish It must have been a blow when the Genevans turned against him and burnt his books en masse.And they were not his las It is always an evil, opines Rousseau near the end of this treatise, to unite several towns in one nation, and you think hang on that s all nations, isn t it Except, perhaps aha for the Swiss republics like Rousseau s own native Geneva, where state and city were coterminous and political theories could be tested and discarded like strains of bacteria in a petri dish It must have been a blow when the Genevans turned against him and burnt his books en masse.And they were not his last critics For Bertrand Russell, Hitler is an outcome of Rousseau, and the top review on Goodreads takes violent exception to him as well These extreme reactions seem very surprising to me, perhaps because I am not well read in political theory In his vision of citizens who willingly subsume themselves within a state, they see the seeds of totalitarianism but Rousseau s point is rather to identify the qualities that would make such a state so appealing in the first place.Those qualities are, for the most part, fairly sensible and inspiring He argues that sovereignty rests exclusively in the people that slavery is invalid that there can be no state religion, nor any religious intolerance that inequality of wealth must be minimised that private interest groups must be kept out of politics and that there is no justification for any divinely appointed monarch or king All legitimate government is republican Rousseau s idea of democracy is a very strict one for him, it s something that constrains all the people to come together to make decisions directly occasions on which the person of the humblest citizen is as sacred and inviolable as that of the highest magistrate, for in the presence of the represented there is no longer any representation Stirring, although perhaps impractical But Rousseau is not impressed by systems under which citizens outsource their decision making powers to elected representatives.The English people believes itself to be free it is gravely mistaken it is free only during the election of Members of Parliament as soon as the Members are elected, the people is enslaved it is nothing.Of course, as recent experience has shown, England does occasionally have popular referenda And Rousseau goes on In the brief moments of its freedom, the English people makes such a use of that freedom that it deserves to lose it.Well, yes.The tiny chapters, combined with Rousseau s light, often aphoristic style, make this a far easier andenjoyable read than I had been expecting And overall I was amazed given his dubious Swissness to see quite how much of Rousseau s politics has survived into modern day Switzerland the direct democracy, the powerful quasi city states, the military service, the low taxation If I had read this book when I lived in England or France, I might have supposed a lot of it to be purely theoretical here, where all my neighbours and colleagues are voting on laws every couple of weeks, it s visible all around you


  5. Hussam Elkhatib Hussam Elkhatib says:

    Great Philosophies Philosophy implies thinking and thus, indicates a certain type of thought That is exactly what this book has accomplished combined three books that summarized a brief view of numerous philosophers ways of perceiving the world Aside from all that, Social Contract theory was the heart and soul of this phenomenal manuscript Should it be followed, its practices would eliminate quite a few of the useless egoism and its selfish consequential behaviors If you d like a moment Great Philosophies Philosophy implies thinking and thus, indicates a certain type of thought That is exactly what this book has accomplished combined three books that summarized a brief view of numerous philosophers ways of perceiving the world Aside from all that, Social Contract theory was the heart and soul of this phenomenal manuscript Should it be followed, its practices would eliminate quite a few of the useless egoism and its selfish consequential behaviors If you d like a moment of constructive peaceful meditation into a realm of philosophical speculations, this book would definitely suffice the purpose Highly recommended


  6. João Fernandes João Fernandes says:

    Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chainsRousseau does give great leaps in logic sometimes, but his ideals are solid and have refaced human society since the French Revolution A must read for its historical importance and ideas on personal freedom versus societal duties.


  7. David Sarkies David Sarkies says:

    Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains20 September 2010 This is how Rousseau, an 18th Century philosopher, opens his treatise on good government The writing is not so much about a good form of government, but rather how government should run to be the best for the people Of some of the ideas he proposes is that the law giver and the sovereign are two different people To have the ability to make and execute the laws in the same hands is repugnant to Rousseau In fact, though he does Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains20 September 2010 This is how Rousseau, an 18th Century philosopher, opens his treatise on good government The writing is not so much about a good form of government, but rather how government should run to be the best for the people Of some of the ideas he proposes is that the law giver and the sovereign are two different people To have the ability to make and execute the laws in the same hands is repugnant to Rousseau In fact, though he does support monarchies, he goes to pains to explain how the monarch should not have the power to make the laws, only to execute them However, being a treatise on how to have good government alongside freedom, really comes down to the tenant at the beginning of chapter 15 The crux of this argument is that as soon as citizens cease to take on board their duty which is to participate in government and to pay somebody else to do it for them is the first step to slavery, and thus the sentence use money thus, and you will soon have chains is what I believe to be the pivotal statement in this book Obviously the title the social contract is about the contract that exists between everybody in a society, and it is this contract that governs how we conduct ourselves, and being involved in the government beyond election day is an important aspect of our role as citizens Unfortunately the way our system works, many of us prefer to turn off as soon as we walk out of the election booth, saying I ve done my duty, now I can go and grab a sausage on the way out and go back to playing Fallout 4 While there are avenues to influence government, many of us have little opportunity to actually do so beyond paying a visit to our local member of parliament who pretty much spews out the typical party line anyway Rousseau is quite idealistic, but his concept of property is worth mentioning there is no concept of property The only reason that property exists is because at some time in the past somebody put a fence up around their land and said this is mine Thus this person alienates everybody but themselves from this land, and it is through their strength that they maintain this alienation It is interesting that there still are societies out there that do not have the same concept of property as us westerners do, and ironically governments don t like it This is very much the case with the Aboriginals in Central Australia They basically want to live the way they have lived for thousands of years, and the government doesn t want that to happen They have no concept of ownership in the way that we have it However there is one tactic that the west has used time and time again to undermine an alien culture alcohol


  8. Paul Haspel Paul Haspel says:

    Social contract is a term that is thrown about pretty widely in our society People will talk in a casual if sometimes facile manner about the idea that people willingly give up the theoretically total freedom of a state of nature in exchange for the benefits that life in a civilized society provides But what Jean Jacques Rousseau means by the term, as expressed in his classic work The Social Contract 1762 , is muchcomplex and muchnuanced Man was born free, and he is everywhere Social contract is a term that is thrown about pretty widely in our society People will talk in a casual if sometimes facile manner about the idea that people willingly give up the theoretically total freedom of a state of nature in exchange for the benefits that life in a civilized society provides But what Jean Jacques Rousseau means by the term, as expressed in his classic work The Social Contract 1762 , is muchcomplex and muchnuanced Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains it is on this seemingly paradoxical note that Rousseau begins Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique On the Social Contract or, Principles of Political RightsOne hundred years before Abraham Lincoln wrote down his first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation, Rousseau reflected on slavery as the ultimate violation of the social contract that should exist between the individual and the government With strict logic, Rousseau points out the shortcomings in earlier thinkers Grotius, Hobbes, even Aristotle , stating forthrightly that Since no man has any natural authority over his fellows, and since force alone bestows no right, all legitimate authority among men must be based on covenants p 53 or contracts, in other words.For his ideas regarding a social contract between an individual and his or her government, Rousseau looks all the way back to the family what Rousseau calls The oldest of all societies, and the only natural one And what interests Rousseau most regarding the family as a unit is what happens once the children have grown up Once the children are freed from the obedience they owe their father, and the father is freed from his responsibilities towards them, both parties equally regain their independence If they continue to remain united, it is no longer nature, but their own choice, which unites them and the family as such is kept in being only by agreement p 50.Rousseau takes great care in differentiating between the executive and legislative functions of government He tells us that the legislative power belongs, and can only belong, to the people , while executive power cannot belong to the generality of the people as legislative or sovereign, since executive power is exercised only in particular acts which are outside the province of law p 101 These words of Rousseau make me think of the statue of George Mason on the campus of George Mason University, where I teach Mason, the Father of the Bill of Rights, is shown working on a draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights 1776 on the desk next to him are books by Hume, Locke and Rousseau The great Swiss philosopher s influence on the writing of the United States Constitution is, of course, a matter of record and this nation s founding document from 1787 puts the legislative branch the Congress first, in Article I, and puts the executive branch the President second, in Article II The Congress makes the laws the President executes the laws, a task that is outside the province of lawmaking just as Rousseau would have had it.Rousseau distinguishes just as carefully between the sovereign and the government The idea of the sovereign is somewhat tricky For Rousseau, it seems, the sovereign is the general will of all the people of a state, collectively expressed Government, by contrast, is muchspecific in its meaning An intermediary body established between the subjects and the sovereign for their mutual communication, a body charged with the execution of the laws and the maintenance of freedom, both civil and political p 102 It gets tricky here, doesn t it People are the subjects, but the people are the sovereign, and the government is an intermediary between people and the people These almost koan like paradoxes are part of what I enjoy about reading Rousseau Perhaps because I was traveling in Lucerne, Switzerland, while reading The Social Contract for the first time, I took particular interest in Rousseau s assertion that small countries were best suited for republican government, as when he writes that democratic government is best suited to a very small state, where the people may be readily assembled and where each citizen may easily know all the others p 113 Looking at the beautiful little cities of Switzerland, each one sheltered by a cool clear lake at its front and a protective wall of mountains at its back, I could understand why Rousseau may have thought that such a setting was perfect for successful republican government It seems worthy of mentioning, in that connection, that Geneva is still officially the Republic and Canton of Geneva emphasis mine Truly, the Swiss take their independence seriously Think about that the next time you re in the old section of Zurich, enjoying some cheese fondue and a glass of Chasselas.How, I found myself wondering, would Rousseau have felt about the United States of America as an experiment in building a large republic When Rousseau wrote The Social Contract in 1762, the French Indian War was not yet over, and the idea of American independence from Great Britain was not even on the horizon By the time Rousseau died in 1778, the Continental Army had won the battle of Saratoga, and independence for the U.S.A was starting to seem likeof a real possibility Did Rousseau ever talk about any of that I don t know.There were plenty of times when I found myself disagreeing with Rousseau Among the city states of classical Greece, he prefers Sparta to Athens, and I could not disagree with himin that regard I also thought that he treated the topic of dictatorship much too lightly and casually, as when he assures us that a dictator could in certain cases defend the public freedom without ever being able to invade it p 172 if he had lived through the 20th century, and had been writing The Social Contract in, say, 1962 rather than 1762, perhaps he would have written about dictatorship quite differently But I think Rousseau would have liked having readers disagree with him for him, that was no doubt an integral part of the dialogue regarding the relationship between the individual and society.And returning to Rousseau now, many years after I first read his work in Switzerland, is eveninteresting, thought provoking, and troubling For in Book IV, on the indestructibility of the general will, Rousseau offers a troubling picture of what can happen when the social tie begins to slacken Rousseau asks us to imagine a time when the state, on the brink of ruin, can maintain itself only in an empty and illusory form, when the social bond is broken in every heart, when the meanest interest impudently flaunts the sacred name of the public good At such times, Rousseau warns us, everyone, animated by secret motives, ceases to speak as a citizen anythan as if the state had never existed p 150 Rousseau is writing in Switzerland, in 1762, but his subject could be the U.S.A in the year 2020 a nation where even a global pandemic that has infected 1.4 million citizens, and killed 85,000 of them, seems unable to bring people together and end bitter political divisions We live in a time when some people seem to want less to achieve something for their own side, than to defeat and humiliate people on the other side own the libs and all that.Jean Jacques Rousseau, who favoured robust debate and the open expression of disagreement, would nonetheless, I think, be appalled at the current state of American democracy It might behoove us all, regardless of the individual political philosophy that any of us might hold, to return to Rousseau s The Social Contract and think carefully about the way in which each of us as an individual relates to, and participates in, the society that we all must share


  9. Beth Beth says:

    The Social Contract, along with Rousseau s Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, is one of the classics of political and social thought I m glad I have finally read it Rousseau sets out to answer the question of whether there can be a legitimate government, and what conditions a legitimate government must meet At the beginning of Book I, he writesI mean to inquire if, in the civil order, there can be any sure and legitimate rule of administration, men being taken as they are and laws as th The Social Contract, along with Rousseau s Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, is one of the classics of political and social thought I m glad I have finally read it Rousseau sets out to answer the question of whether there can be a legitimate government, and what conditions a legitimate government must meet At the beginning of Book I, he writesI mean to inquire if, in the civil order, there can be any sure and legitimate rule of administration, men being taken as they are and laws as they might be In this inquiry I shall endeavor always to unite what right sanctions with what is prescribed by interest, in order that justice and utility may in no case be divided Rousseau rejects the Hobbesian view that political authority can be concentrated in a single individual, but he has a similar view to Hobbes about the nature of sovereign authoritythe social order is a sacred right which is the basis of all other rights Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature, and must therefore be founded on conventions Rousseau asserts that under a legitimate government, people are as free as they would be in the state of nature What individuals lose from the transition from the state of nature is natural liberty, which is bounded only by the strength of the individual What they gain is civil liberty, which is limited by the general will The general will is the collective will of the citizens The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article on Rousseau has a helpful summary of the concept of the general willRousseau s account of the general will is marked by unclarities and ambiguities that have attracted the interest of commentators since its first publication The principal tension is between a democratic conception, where the general will is simply what the citizens of the state have decided together in their sovereign assembly, and an alternative interpretation where the general will is the transcendent incarnation of the citizens common interest that exists in abstraction from what any of them actually wants Bertram 2012 Both views find some support in Rousseau s texts, and both have been influential Rousseau suggests that direct democracy along the lines of ancient Athens is better than representative democracy, though he also says that not all societies, maybe not even most, are capable of having a direct democracy He writes in Book II, Chapter III Whether the General Will is Fallible that it would be better if voters had no communication with one another when they voted, an early example of a proposal for the secret ballot In the very next sentence, he says that the general will becomes compromised when factions arise, and partial associations are formed at the expense of great associations Shades of Federalist 10 here by James Madison , except that Madison is quick to point out that factions are inevitable, at least in a free society, something Rousseau seems to miss liberty is to faction as air is to fire and all that If you are reading this book, it is definitely worth reading Federalist 10 alongside Rousseau, especially since it is only five pages long I have not read The Social Contract before or rather, I tried to read it and didn t get very far I have read the Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, years ago, so I remembered some of his ideas about moral psychology, which are not discussed as much in this book The Social Contract can mostly stand on its own, but I recommend at least reading a quick overview of the earlier work before reading this book


  10. Chris Chris says:

    My first contact with the Social Contract transpired back in those doldrums which is usually just dumped into a general catch all called teenage It was profound, it was moving and enlightening, so naturally I didn t know anyone else I could discuss this book with as nobody else seems to be pondering the bigger things in life my classmates and peers were completely useless in my hopes to talk about this work, and the societal elders I was familiar with were equally ignorant of the importance of My first contact with the Social Contract transpired back in those doldrums which is usually just dumped into a general catch all called teenage It was profound, it was moving and enlightening, so naturally I didn t know anyone else I could discuss this book with as nobody else seems to be pondering the bigger things in life my classmates and peers were completely useless in my hopes to talk about this work, and the societal elders I was familiar with were equally ignorant of the importance of this timeless masterpiece and the latter may bedisturbing as these people were generally given the title of teacher On the few occasions where I ve been afforded the opportunity to invoke the name of this classic, most people think I m spouting gibberish and have lost my f cking mind of course these are usually very drunken instances, such as the time I went totally apeshit on a hotel pool deck I usually keep discussion of this book to a minimum these days, only shrieking This is a breach of Social Contract when being attacked or otherwise having my life or livelihood threatened this fails to convey the importance of Rousseau s legacy This grand, conceptual book also happens to be one of the last things worth a wad of zebra jit to come out of France, and though most scholars will be quick to note that the thoughts contained within were instrumental to the advent of the French Revolution, nobody seems to give it mention for turning about a dozen kids into lifelong socialists every year a truly remarkable feat in a diseased, gluttonous, avaricious, cesspool like 1990s America All I can offer about the book is this most people, the masses of simpletons clogging up the works and forward progress of the world at large, are simply not ready for this book Luckily, Rousseau and his Social Contract don t play that weak shit this was written simply because Jean Jacques had the foresight to recognize something is perverting the ties that bind men and something had better be done about it before everyone is swept into a cataclysmic societal vacuum which none dare wish for civil unrest and entropy spiraling the better part of a billion people into an Armageddon like madness The days of Apocalypse Ragnorak But enough of that banter, this book succeeds because the debated subject is social structure and the proper rule of the people while still managing to keep some semblance of individual nature within it the unthinkable task of creating an ideal government The book isn t perfect, and I do believe it actually strives to be, which can be a deterrent at points nothing is worse than hearing an acolyte of some great truth expound upon something which just isn t correct We can leave that by the wayside, for the foundation for Rousseau s bothersome suggestions is solid and worthy of respect Fully deserving inclusion as one of Pengiun s heralded Great Ideas series, and as a sidenote, not only is this odd sized paperback packaging the housing of such a phenomenal work, but the edition itself is f cking gorgeous, contrasting in bold blue and white while not even being boldly colored , and an incredible debossed styling